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Grbl v1.1版本配置说明


2018-06-21 21:21:58 (6191)


Grblv1.1 Configuration

Source Websit:https://github.com/gnea/grbl/wiki/Grbl-v1.1-Configuration


Getting Started

开始设置

First, connect to Grbl using the serial terminal of your choice.

首先,首先使用串口终端设备连接Grbl

Set the baud rate to 115200 as 8-N-1 (8-bits, noparity, and 1-stop bit.)

设置波特率115200,8个数据位-没有校验位-一个停止位

Once connected you should get the Grbl-prompt, which looks likethis:

当你连接上的时候Grbl会给你提示,就像这样

Grbl 1.1f ['$' for help]

Type $ and press enter to have Grbl print a help message. You shouldnot see any local echo of the $ and enter. Grbl should respond with:

输入$并按下回车,Grbl会打印帮助信息,你不会看见本地输入的$,Grbl会有如下的回复

[HLP:$$ $# $G $I $N $x=val $Nx=line $J=line $SLP $C $X $H ~ ! ?ctrl-x]

The ‘$’-commands are Grbl system commands used to tweak thesettings, view or change Grbl's states and running modes, and start a homingcycle. The last four non-'$' commands are realtimecontrol commands that can be sent at anytime, no matter what Grbl is doing.These either immediately change Grbl's running behavior or immediately print areport of the important realtime data like current position (aka DRO).

$命令是Grbl的系统命令用来调整设置,查看或者改变Grbl的状态和运行模式,并且可以开始远点回归运动,最后四个不是$命令是实时控制命令,可以随时发送给Grbl,无论Grbl是在做什么,这些命令可以立即改变Grbl的运行限制或立即打印报告的重要的实时数据,如当前位置(又名DRO)。


Grbl Settings

Grbl设定

$$ - View Grbl settings

$$-查看Grbl的设置

To view the settings, type $$ and press enter after connecting to Grbl.Grbl should respond with a list of the current system settings, as shown in theexample below. All of these settings are persistent and kept in EEPROM, so ifyou power down, these will be loaded back up the next time you power up yourArduino

连接Grbl键入$$并按下回车,可以查看设置,Grbl会回复单签系统设置的列表,如下面的例子所示,这些设置都是保存在EEPROM中并且持续生效的,所以即便你关机了,下次开始他们依然会保持这些设置

The x of $x=val indicates a particular setting, while val is thesetting value. In prior versions of Grbl, each setting had a description nextto it in () parentheses, but Grbl v1.1+ no longer includes them unfortunately.This was done to free up precious flash memory to add the new featuresavailable in v1.1. However, most good GUIs will help out by attachingdescriptions for you, so you know what you are looking at.

$x=valx表示指定的设定,val是设定的数值,在之前的Grbl版本中,每个设定的都在后面的()中有描述,不幸的时在Grblv1.1+版本中不包括这些东西,这是为了解放一些空间用于添加新的拥有的功能点,不过,许多好的GUI会附上一些描述来帮助你使用,所以你知道你在看什么

Settings and sample values

Description

$0=10

Step pulse, microseconds

$1=25

Step idle delay, milliseconds

$2=0

Step port invert, mask

$3=0

Direction port invert, mask

$4=0

Step enable invert, boolean

$5=0

Limit pins invert, boolean

$6=0

Probe pin invert, boolean

$10=1

Status report, mask

$11=0.010

Junction deviation, mm

$12=0.002

Arc tolerance, mm

$13=0

Report inches, boolean

$20=0

Soft limits, boolean

$21=0

Hard limits, boolean

$22=1

Homing cycle, boolean

$23=0

Homing dir invert, mask

$24=25.000

Homing feed, mm/min

$25=500.000

Homing seek, mm/min

$26=250

Homing debounce, milliseconds

$27=1.000

Homing pull-off, mm

$30=1000.

Max spindle speed, RPM

$31=0.

Min spindle speed, RPM

$32=0

Laser mode, boolean

$100=250.000

X steps/mm

$101=250.000

Y steps/mm

$102=250.000

Z steps/mm

$110=500.000

X Max rate, mm/min

$111=500.000

Y Max rate, mm/min

$112=500.000

Z Max rate, mm/min

$120=10.000

X Acceleration, mm/sec^2

$121=10.000

Y Acceleration, mm/sec^2

$122=10.000

Z Acceleration, mm/sec^2

$130=200.000

X Max travel, mm

$131=200.000

Y Max travel, mm

$132=200.000

Z Max travel, mm

$x=val - Save Grbl setting

$x=val – 保存设置

The $x=val command saves or alters a Grbl setting, which can be donemanually by sending this command when connected to Grbl through a serialterminal program, but most Grbl GUIs will do this for you as a user-friendlyfeature.

$x=val命令可以保存或改变Grbl的设置,只要通过串口终端程序连接了Grbl,你可以每一个指令,但是大多数的Grbl GUI会给提提供一个友好的功能

To manually change e.g. the microseconds step pulse option to 10usyou would type this, followed by an enter:

手动更改例子:更改每微妙步进脉冲为10us,你可以输入下面的内容

$0=10

$0=10

If everything went well, Grbl will respond with an 'ok' and thissetting is stored in EEPROM and will be retained forever or until you changethem. You can check if Grbl has received and stored your setting correctly bytyping $$ to view the system settings again.

如果一切顺率,Grbl会回复你‘ok’并且吧这个设置保存到EEPROM中去,然后一直保存下去,直到你要更改它,如果Grbl回复并保存了你的设置,你可以输入$$来检查是否正确


Grbl's $x=val settings and what they mean

Grbl $x=val 设置和他们的代表的意义

NOTE: From Grbl v0.9 to Grbl v1.1, only $10 status reports changedand new $30/ $31 spindle rpm max/min and $32 laser mode settings were added.Everything else is the same.

笔记:从Grblv0.9到Grblv1.1,只有$10状态报告的结果改变已经新增了$30/$31主轴最大和最小转速,以及$32激光模式,其他部分都是一样的


$0 – Step pulse, microseconds

$0-步进脉冲,单位:微秒

Stepper drivers are rated for a certain minimum step pulse length.Check the data sheet or just try some numbers. You want the shortest pulses thestepper drivers can reliably recognize. If the pulses are too long, you mightrun into trouble when running the system at very high feed and pulse rates,because the step pulses can begin to overlap each other. We recommend somethingaround 10 microseconds, which is the default value.

步进电机驱动器决定了最小脉冲长度,检查数据或者试试一些数字,你可以得到步进电机的最小脉冲。如果这个脉冲太长,在非常高的脉冲频率输入下你可能会遇到一些麻烦,因为脉冲之间可能会相互重叠,我们推荐大概在10微妙左右,这是一个默认值


$1 - Step idle delay, milliseconds

$1 – 步进空闲延时,毫秒

Every time your steppers complete a motion and come to a stop, Grblwill delay disabling the steppers by this value. OR, you can always keepyour axes enabled (powered so as to hold position) by setting this value to themaximum 255 milliseconds. Again, just to repeat, you can keep all axes alwaysenabled by setting $1=255.

每当你的完成了一次从运动到停止的步进,Grbl都会延时一段这个数值的时间使步进脉冲无效,或者,通过设置这个值为最大的255毫秒,你可以始终保持你的轴启用(动力保持位置)。再次重复一下,您可以通过设置$1=255来保持所有轴始终启用。

The stepper idle lock time is the time length Grbl will keep thesteppers locked before disabling. Depending on the system, you can set this tozero and disable it. On others, you may need 25-50 milliseconds to make sureyour axes come to a complete stop before disabling. This is to help account formachine motors that do not like to be left on for long periods of time withoutdoing something. Also, keep in mind that some stepper drivers don't rememberwhich micro step they stopped on, so when you re-enable, you may witness some'lost' steps due to this. In this case, just keep your steppers enabled via$1=255

步进空闲锁定时间是一个时间长度,Grbl会在这个时间内都保持步进锁定,系统启动的时候,你可以设置为0去关闭它,如果不是这样,你可能需要25-50毫秒来确保你的轴完成运动之间是禁用的,这项功能是帮助那些不喜欢长时间不工作的步进电机(就是一直启动的那种),另外,请记住有些步进电机驱动器会忘了自己停在哪一步,所以当你重新使能的时候你会发现一些丢失的步骤(不太清除,可能是丢步的意思),原因就是如此,遇到这种情况,只需要设置$1=255保持步进使能即可。


$2 – Step port invert, mask

$2- 步进脉冲颠倒接口,mask值(掩码)

This setting inverts the step pulse signal. By default, a stepsignal starts at normal-low and goes high upon a step pulse event. After a steppulse time set by $0, the pin resets to low, until the next step pulse event.When inverted, the step pulse behavior switches from normal-high, to low duringthe pulse, and back to high. Most users will not need to use this setting, butthis can be useful for certain CNC-stepper drivers that have peculiarrequirements. For example, an artificial delay between the direction pin andstep pulse can be created by inverting the step pin.

这个设置是用来翻转步进脉冲信号的,默认的情况,正常状态的步进脉冲信号在开始时是低电平的,并且在有脉冲输出的时候变高,在一个脉冲的时间(由$0设置)过后变为低电平,当翻转的时候,步进脉冲的动作开关变为正常状态下是高电平,有脉冲时是低电平,脉冲之后再变为高电平,许多使用者可能不需要使用这个功能,但是这个对于某些特殊的步进电机驱动器是有用的,比如,在方向引脚电平跳变和脉冲输出之间的人工延时可以通过翻转步进脉冲方向来实现(简单的说就是正常时的脉冲电平信号与方向的电平信号同向,这个会影响电机的启动)

This invert mask setting is a value which stores the axes to invertas bit flags. You really don't need to completely understand how it works. Yousimply need to enter the settings value for the axes you want to invert. Forexample, if you want to invert the X and Z axes, you'd send $2=5 to Grbl andthe setting should now read $2=5 (step port invert mask:00000101).

这个翻转掩码是一个值,它的每一位储存着要翻转的轴,你不需要完全理解这个是怎么工作的,你需要的很简单,根据你要翻转的轴确认要设定的值,如果你要翻转X和Z轴,发送$2=5设定Grbl,并且确定$2=5(步进脉冲翻转掩码:00000101)

Setting Value

Mask

Invert X

Invert Y

Invert Z

0

00000000

N

N

N

1

00000001

Y

N

N

2

00000010

N

Y

N

3

00000011

Y

Y

N

4

00000100

N

N

Y

5

00000101

Y

N

Y

6

00000110

N

Y

Y

7

00000111

Y

Y

Y


$3 – Direction portinvert, mask

$3 – 方向颠倒接口,mask值

This setting inverts the direction signal for each axis. By default,Grbl assumes that the axes move in a positive direction when the direction pinsignal is low, and a negative direction when the pin is high. Often, axes don'tmove this way with some machines. This setting will invert the direction pinsignal for those axes that move the opposite way.

这个设置是用来翻转每个轴的方向信号的,默认来说,Grbl假定轴朝着正方向的时候电平为低,朝着反方向的时候电平为高。通常,有些轴在机器上不是这样移动的,这个设置是为了翻转返方向引脚的信号使得引脚朝着正确的方向。

This invert mask setting works exactly like the step port invertmask and stores which axes to invert as bit flags. To configure this setting,you simply need to send the value for the axes you want to invert. Use thetable above. For example, if want to invert the Y axis direction only, you'dsend $3=2 to Grbl and the setting should now read $3=2 (dir port invertmask:00000010)

这个翻转掩码的设定工作方式和步进翻转掩码刚好是一样的,每一位代表着要翻转的轴,配这个设置,你仅仅只需要发送要翻转的轴对应的数值即可,参考上面的表格,如果只想要翻转Y轴的方向,发送$2=3设定Grbl,并且确定$2=3即可(方向接口翻转掩码:00000010)


$4 - Step enable invert,boolean

$4 – 步进使能翻转 boolean值(使能)

By default, the stepper enable pin is high to disable and low toenable. If your setup needs the opposite, just invert the stepper enable pin bytyping $4=1. Disable with $4=0. (May need a power cycle to load the change.)

默认来说,步进使能引脚是高电平禁止,低电平使能,如果你需要的设置是相反的,输入$4=1就可以翻转为高电平使能,$4=0则是禁止(可能需要重启的来更新配置)


$5 - Limit pins invert,boolean

$5 – 限位引脚翻转,boolean值

By default, the limit pins are held normally-high with the Arduino'sinternal pull-up resistor. When a limit pin is low, Grbl interprets this astriggered. For the opposite behavior, just invert the limit pins by typing$5=1. Disable with $5=0. You may need a power cycle to load the change.

默认来说,arduino内置了上拉电阻,限位引脚一般是保持高电平的,当引脚电平是低的时候,Grbl会认为已经触发了,如果是相反的动作,则只需要输入$5=1翻转限位引脚即可,如果不需要翻转则输入$5=0,你可能需要重启来更新配置

NOTE: For more advanced usage, the internal pull-up resistor on thelimit pins may be disabled in config.h.

注意:对于更高级的使用者,你可以在config.h文件里面禁用内置上拉电阻


$6 - Probe pin invert, boolean

$6 – 探测引脚翻转,boolean值

By default, the probe pin is held normally-high with the Arduino'sinternal pull-up resistor. When the probe pin is low, Grbl interprets this astriggered. For the opposite behavior, just invert the probe pin by typing $6=1.Disable with $6=0. You may need a power cycle to load the change.

默认来说,arduino内置了上拉电阻,探测引脚一般是保持高电平的,当引脚电平是低的时候,Grbl会认为已经触发了,如果是相反的动作,则只需要输入$6=1翻转限位引脚即可,如果不需要翻转则输入$6=0,你可能需要重启来更新配置


$10 - Status report, mask

$10 – 状态报告,mask值

This setting determines what Grbl real-time data it reports back tothe user when a '?' status report is sent. This data includes current runstate, real-time position, real-time feed rate, pin states, current overridevalues, buffer states, and the g-code line number currently executing (ifenabled through compile-time options).

这个设置决定了Grbl实时数据的反馈,当用户发送了一个‘?’状态报告就会被返回,这个数据是包括了当前的运行数据,实时的位子,实时的给进速率,引脚状态,当前的覆盖值,缓冲区的状态,和目前执行的G代码行数(如果启用需要经过编译)。

By default, the new report implementation in Grbl v1.1+ will includejust about everything in the standard status report. A lot of the data ishidden and will appear only if it changes. This increases efficiencydramatically over of the old report style and allows you to get faster updatesand still get more data about your machine. The interface documentationoutlines how it works and most of it applies only to GUI developers or thecurious.

默认状态下,Grbl v1.1执行的是新的的状态报告它包括了之前的标准状态报告,有许多数据是隐藏的只会显示改变了的数据,这个提升了旧报告样式的效率,允许你更快的获得更新数据并且依然能获得很多机械数据,这个接口文档讲述了它的工作原理,其中大部分只适用于GUI开发人员或业余人员。

To keep things simple and consistent, Grbl v1.1 has only tworeporting options. These are primarily here just for users and developers tohelp set things up.

为了让事情更加简单,统一。Grbl v1.1只有两个报告选项,这些主要是为用户和开发人员设置的。

  • Position type may be specified to show either machine position (MPos:) or work position (WPos:), but no longer both at the same time. Enabling work position is useful in certain scenarios when Grbl is being directly interacted with through a serial terminal, but machine position reporting should be used by default.
  • 位置选项可以是选择是机器位子(Mpos)或工作位置(Wpos),但是两者不会同时显示,工作位置有些时候是有用的比如Grbl通过串口终端连接的时候,但是默认报告使用的是机器位置
  • Usage data of Grbl's planner and serial RX buffers may be enabled. This shows the number of blocks or bytes available in the respective buffers. This is generally used to helps determine how Grbl is performing when testing out a streaming interface. This should be disabled by default.
  • 启用串口接受缓冲区可以知道Grbl的数据利用情况,这个会显示了接受缓冲区可用的块和字节,测试数据数据流接口通常可以帮助我们判断Gerl是如何去执行的

Use the table below enables and disable reporting options. Simplyadd the values listed of what you'd like to enable, then save it by sendingGrbl your setting value. For example, the default report with machine positionand no buffer data reports setting is $10=1. If work position and buffer dataare desired, the setting will be $10=2.

使用下面的报告选项使能和禁用表,添加你想要启用的功能对应的数值,发送给Grbl并保存它即可,举个例子,默认值是$10=1报告只有机器位置并且没有接受缓冲区的报告,如果你希望有工作位置和缓冲区数据,那么需要设置$10=2

Report Type

Value

Description

Position Type

0

Enable WPos: Disable MPos:.

Position Type

1

Enable MPos:. Disable WPos:.

Buffer Data

2

Enabled Buf: field appears with planner and serial RX available buffer.


$23 - Homing dir invert, mask

$23 – 复位方向翻转,mask值

By default, Grbl assumes your homing limit switches are in thepositive direction, first moving the z-axis positive, then the x-y axespositive before trying to precisely locate machine zero by going back and forthslowly around the switch. If your machine has a limit switch in the negativedirection, the homing direction mask can invert the axes' direction. It worksjust like the step port invert and direction port invert masks, where all youhave to do is send the value in the table to indicate what axes you want toinvert and search for in the opposite direction.

默认来说,Grbl假定你的复位限位开关是在正方向上的,首先z轴会向正方向移动,然后x-y轴向正方向移动,然后在快关周围来回的移动精确的查找机器零点,如果你的开关在负方向,在复位方向掩码中可以翻转轴的方向,它的工作模式个步进接口翻转和方向接口翻转一样,您只需在发送在表中值,以指示您要反转哪些轴,并朝相反的方向搜索即可。


$24 - Homing feed, mm/min

$24 - 复位寻找速度,mm/min

The homing cycle first searches for the limit switches at a higherseek rate, and after it finds them, it moves at a slower feed rate to home intothe precise location of machine zero. Homing feed rate is that slower feedrate. Set this to whatever rate value that provides repeatable and precisemachine zero locating

原点复位首先会以很高的给进速率去寻找限位开关,在找到之后,再以很慢的给进速率去移动到机器零点的位置,复位查找速率就是这个很慢的速率,这个可以重复设置提供机器零点的速率


$25 - Homing seek, mm/min

$25 - 复位给进速度, mm/min

Homing seek rate is the homing cycle search rate, or the rate atwhich it first tries to find the limit switches. Adjust to whatever rate getsto the limit switches in a short enough time without crashing into your limitswitches if they come in too fast

.复位给进速度是原点复位的查询速度,或者说这是一开始寻找限位开关的速率,如果它太快了,你可以调试这个速度,把到限位开关的时间控制的足够短,而不会让机器撞到的限位开关


$26 - Homing debounce, milliseconds

$26 – 复位消抖,毫秒

Whenever a switch triggers, some of them can haveelectrical/mechanical noise that actually 'bounce' the signal high and low fora few milliseconds before settling in. To solve this, you need to debounce thesignal, either by hardware with some kind of signal conditioner or by softwarewith a short delay to let the signal finish bouncing. Grbl performs a shortdelay, only homing when locating machine zero. Set this delay value to whateveryour switch needs to get repeatable homing. In most cases, 5-25 milliseconds isfine.

无论什么时候开关被触发,它们都会产生一些电气/机械的噪音,其实信号从高到低的跳变过程长达几个毫秒,为了解决这个问题你需要消除信号的抖动,在硬件上使用一些信号的调节器或者软件上在信号跳变时使用少量的延时,Grvl可以完成这个极短的延时,不过只在复查查找机器零点的时候,设置这个延时数值无论你的开关重复复位几次都是适用的,在大多数情况下,5-25毫秒是最好的


$27 - Homing pull-off, mm

$27 – 复位返回行程, mm

To play nice with the hard limits feature, where homing can sharethe same limit switches, the homing cycle will move off all of the limitswitches by this pull-off travel after it completes. In other words, it helpsto prevent accidental triggering of the hard limit after a homing cycle. Makesure this value is large enough to clear the limit switch. If not, Grbl willthrow an alarm error for failing to clear it.

为了发挥硬限制功能,复位可以使用相同位子的限位开关,复位完成后将会移动到限位开关外面。换句话说,它有助于防止复位后再意外的触发硬限制。确保此值足够大以清限位开关的信号。如果不够大,Grbl会因未能清除开关信号而发出警报错误。


$30 - Max spindle speed, RPM

$30 – 最大主轴转速,rmp

This sets the spindle speed for the maximum 5V PWM pin output. Forexample, if you want to set 10000rpm at 5V, program $30=10000. For 255rpm at5V, program $30=255. If a program tries to set a higher spindle RPM greaterthan the $30 max spindle speed, Grbl will just output the max 5V, since itcan't go any faster. By default, Grbl linearly relates the max-min RPMs to5V-0.02V PWM pin output in 255 equally spaced increments. When the PWM pinreads 0V, this indicates spindle disabled. Note that there are additionalconfiguration options are available in config.h to tweak how this operates.

这个设置中PWM引脚输出最大主轴转速时是5V,举个例子,如果你想要去设定10000转,写$30=10000,如果是255转,写入$30=255,如果程序设置的值了超过了$30最大主轴转速,Grbl将会只输出5v的最大电压,因为它不能在快了,默认来说,GrblPWM引脚输出255个等间隔增量来输出线性的5V-0.02V的最大最小转速。当PWM引脚读取到0V时,表示主轴是禁用的,注意:在config.h中还有其他配置选项可用来调整它的工作方式。


$31 - Min spindle speed, RPM

$31 – 最小主轴转速,rmp

This sets the spindle speed for the minimum 0.02V PWM pin output (0Vis disabled). Lower RPM values are accepted by Grbl but the PWM output will notgo below 0.02V, except when RPM is zero. If zero, the spindle is disabled andPWM output is 0V.

这个设置中PWM引脚输出最小转速时是0.2V(0V是禁用),Grbl能接受很低的转速但PWM输出不会低于0.2V,除非转速是0V,如果是0V,这个主轴是禁用的并且PWM输出也是为0V

 

$32 - Laser mode, Boolean

$32 – 激光模式,boolean值

When enabled, Grbl will move continuously through consecutive G1,G2, or G3 motion commands when programmed with a S spindle speed (laser power).The spindle PWM pin will be updated instantaneously through each motion withoutstopping. Please read the GRBL laserdocumentation and your laser device documentation prior to using this mode.Lasers are very dangerous. They can instantly damage your vision permanantlyand cause fires. Grbl does not assume any responsibility for any issues thefirmware may cause, as defined by its GPL license.

如果启动,程序使用S主轴转速(激光模式)Grbl会持续不断的使用G1、G2,G3这些移动命令移动,主轴PWM引脚每一个运动的瞬间都会更新不会停止,在使用这个模式之前请先阅读GRBL激光模式文档和激光模式驱动文档,激光是十分危险的。它们会瞬间损害你的视力并引发火灾。Grbl对其硬件可能导致的任何问题不承担任何责任,GPL许可证中有定义。

When disabled, Grbl will operate as it always has, stopping motionwith every S spindle speed command. This is the default operation of a millingmachine to allow a pause to let the spindle change speeds.

如果禁止,Grbl将会和之前一样工作,在每个主轴运动命令后停止运动,这是默认的铣床模式,可以暂停来来让主轴改变速度。


$100, $101 and $102 – [X,Y,Z] steps/mm

$100, $101 and $102 – [X,Y,Z]步/mm

Grbl needs to know how far each step will take the tool in reality.To calculate steps/mm for an axis of your machine you need to know:

Grbl需要知道实际中使用的工具每一步走了多远,为了计算每一轴的 步/mm 你需要知道

  • The mm traveled per revolution of your stepper motor. This is dependent on your belt drive gears or lead screw pitch.
  • 你的步进电机每一圈转了多少毫米,这决定于你的皮带传统齿轮和丝杆螺距
  • The full steps per revolution of your steppers (typically 200)
  • 每转一圈全部的步数(通常为200)
  • The microsteps per step of your controller (typically 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16). Tip: Using high microstep values (e.g., 16) can reduce your stepper motor torque, so use the lowest that gives you the desired axis resolution and comfortable running properties
  • 控制器每步的微步(通常为1,2,4,8或16)。提示:使用高微步数值(例如16)可以降低步进电机的转矩,因此请使用最低值,以获得所需的轴分辨率和舒适的运行属性

The steps/mm can then be calculated like this: steps_per_mm =(steps_per_revolution*microsteps)/mm_per_rev

这个 步/mm 可以这样计算:步每毫米 =(步每圈*微步)/毫米每圈

Compute this value for every axis and write these settings to Grbl.

为每个轴计算这个值并写入到Grbl的设置中


$110, $111 and $112 – [X,Y,Z] Max rate, mm/min

$110, $111 and $112 – [X,Y,Z] 最大速率,mm/分钟

This sets the maximum rate each axis can move. Whenever Grbl plans amove, it checks whether or not the move causes any one of these individual axesto exceed their max rate. If so, it'll slow down the motion to ensure none ofthe axes exceed their max rate limits. This means that each axis has its ownindependent speed, which is extremely useful for limiting the typically slowerZ-axis.

这个设置了每一轴移动的最大速率,每当Grbl按计划移动是,它会检查移动是否导致这些单个轴中的任何一个超过其最大速率。如果是这样,它会减慢运动速度,以确保没有任何轴超出其最大速率限制。这意味着每个轴都有自己的独立速度,这对于限制通常较慢的Z轴非常有用。

The simplest way to determine these values is to test each axis oneat a time by slowly increasing max rate settings and moving it. For example, totest the X-axis, send Grbl something like G0 X50with enough traveldistance so that the axis accelerates to its max speed. You'll know you've hitthe max rate threshold when your steppers stall. It'll make a bit of noise, butshouldn't hurt your motors. Enter a setting a 10-20% below this value, so youcan account for wear, friction, and the mass of your workpiece/tool. Then,repeat for your other axes.

确定这些值的最简单方法是逐个测试每个轴,方法是缓慢增加最大速率设置并移动它。例如,要测试X轴,请发送Grbl的指令比如 G0X50并且有足够的行进距离,以便轴加速到其最大速度。当你的步进电机失速时,你就知道你达到了最高速率阈值。它会产生一些噪音,但不应该伤害你的电机。输入一个比该值低10-20%的设置,这样就可以缓解磨损,摩擦以及工件/工具的质量。然后,重复您的其他轴。

NOTE: This max rate setting also sets the G0 seek rates.

注意:这个最大速度设置也是G0给进速率的设置


$120, $121, $122 – [X,Y,Z] Acceleration, mm/sec^2

$120, $121, $122 – [X,Y,Z] 加速度,mm/s^2

This sets the axes acceleration parameters in mm/second/second.Simplistically, a lower value makes Grbl ease slower into motion, while ahigher value yields tighter moves and reaches the desired feed rates muchquicker. Much like the max rate setting, each axis has its own accelerationvalue and are independent of each other. This means that a multi-axis motionwill only accelerate as quickly as the lowest contributing axis can.

这设置是mm/秒/秒为单位设置轴加速度。简单地说,较低的值使得Grbl缓慢地运动,而较高的值产生更紧密的运动并更快地达到期望的进给速率。与最大速率设置非常相似,每个轴都有其自己的加速度值,并且彼此独立。这意味着多轴运动将只有像最少作用的轴一样是快速加速的。(我也不知道最后一句讲了什么…….)

Again, like the max rate setting, the simplest way to determine thevalues for this setting is to individually test each axis with slowlyincreasing values until the motor stalls. Then finalize your accelerationsetting with a value 10-20% below this absolute max value. This should accountfor wear, friction, and mass inertia. We highly recommend that you dry testsome G-code programs with your new settings before committing to them.Sometimes the loading on your machine is different when moving in all axestogether.,

同样的,像最大速率设置,确定此设置值的最简单方法是逐渐测试每个轴的缓慢增加值,直到电机停转。然后以比此绝对最大值低10-20%的值完成加速度设置。这应该考虑到磨损,摩擦和质量惯性。我们强烈建议您在提交之前使用新设置对某些G代码程序进行干式测试。有时候,所有轴一起移动时,机器上的加载会有所不同。


$130, $131, $132 – [X,Y,Z] Max travel, mm

$130, $131, $132 – [X,Y,Z] 最大行程,mm

This sets the maximum travel from end to end for each axis in mm.This is only useful if you have soft limits (and homing) enabled, as this isonly used by Grbl's soft limit feature to check if you have exceeded yourmachine limits with a motion command.

这个设置是以mm设置每个轴的最大行程,如果你开启了软限制那么这个是有用的,因为这个只适用于你的软限制功能,来检查的移动命令是否超过机器限制


 

Quick Guide to Setting Up Your Machine for the First Time

第一次使用时使用快速设置向导设置你的机器

Grbl's default configuration is intentionally very generic to helpensure users can see successful motion without having to tweak settings.Generally, the first thing you'll want to do is get your stepper motorsrunning, usually without it connected to the CNC. Wire Grbl to your stepperdrivers and stepper motors according to your manufacturer guidelines. Connectto Grbl through a serial terminal or one of many Grbl GUIs. Send some G1 or G0 commandsto Grbl. You should see your stepper motor rotating. If you are having troublewith your stepper motors, try the following:

Grbl的默认配置是非常通用的,可以确保用户看到成功的运动而无需调整设置。一般来说你的第一件事是让你的电机动起来,而不是连接到CNC中,将Grbl和你的步进电机驱动器相连接而且需要根据厂房的指导连接,通过串口终端和一些GUI与Grbl对接,发送G0或G1命令给Grbl,你可以看到步进电机转动,如果启动步进电机有困难,你额可以尝试以下方法

  • Ensure everything is wired and powered correctly per your stepper driver manufacturer guidelines.
  • If your steppers are mounted in your CNC already, ensure your axes move freely and don't obviously bind. If you can't easily tell, try removing your steppers and check if they run under no load.
  • Ensure your stepper motors and axes linear mechanisms are all tight and secure. Small set screws on drivetrain components becoming loose is a very common problem. Re-tighten and try applying some non-permenant thread locker (Loctite blue) if it continually loosens.
  • For more difficult issues, try the process of elimination to quickly isolate the problem. Start by disconnecting everything from the Arduino. Test if Grbl is operating ok by itself. Then, add one thing at a time and test.
  • If your steppers are powered and making a grinding noise when trying to move, try lowering the '$' acceleration and max rate settings. This sound is a sign that your steppers is losing steps and not able to keep up due too much torque load or going too fast.
  • Grbl's default step pulse settings cover the vast majority of stepper drivers on the market. While very uncommon, check these settings if you are still experiencing problems or have a unusual setup.

Next, you will need to make sure your machine is moving in thecorrect directions according to a Cartesian(XYZ) coordinate frame and satisfiesthe right-hand rule, as shown:

接下你需要保证你的机器移动是根据正确Cartesian(XYZ)坐标系,符合右手定则建立的正确方向


Mount your stepper motors into your CNC, if you haven't already doneso. Send Grbl some motion commands, such as G91 G0 X1 or G91 G0 X-1, which willmove the x-axis +1mm and -1mm, respectively. Check all axes. If an axis is notmoving correctly, alter the $3 direction port mask setting to invert thedirection.

安装你的步进电机到你的CNC系统中,如果你完成了这些工作,发送一些Grbl运动命令,例如G91 G0 X1或G91 G0 X-1,将分别移动x轴+1mm和-1mm,然后用同样的方法检查所有的轴,如果有一个轴没有正确的移动,更改$3方向设定可以改变设定方向

If you are unfamiliar with how coordinate frames are setup on CNCmachines, see this great diagram by LinuxCNC.Just keep in mind that motions are relative to the tool. So on atypical CNC gantry router, the tool will move rather than the fixed table. Ifthe x-axis is aligned positive to the right, a positive motion command willmove the tool to the right. Whereas, a moving table with a fixed tool will movethe table to the left for the same command, because the tool is moving to theright relative to the table.

如果你不熟悉如何给的CNC机器设置坐标系,你可以看看这篇LinuxCNC图标,

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